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Agroforestry biotechnology for sustainable agriculture on marginal lands

Agroforestry biotechnology for sustainable agriculture on marginal lands

Kwak Sang-Soo

Статья научная

The dramatic increase in the global population combined with rapid industrialization in developing countries has placed great strains on global food and energy supplies. The UN-FAO estimated that the world population will exceed 9.7 billion in 2050. If we use energy and food at the present rate, we will need more than 3.5-times the current energy supply and 1.7-times the current food supply in 2050. To cope with these global crises in food and energy supply as well as environmental problems, the development of new eco-friendly industrial plant varieties for growth on marginal lands is urgently needed to ensure sustainable development. Plant biotechnology can be used as a tool to maximize plant productivity by introducing stress tolerance genes and metabolic genes responsible for increasing yield and improving functions. In the presentation, recent results on transgenic plants (sweetpotato, alfalfa and poplar) with enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses are introduced. Sweetpotato represents an attractive crop that can be used to help solve the global food and environmental problems as an industrial bioreactor. Alfalfa is one of important legume forage crops on the global marginal lands. Poplar trees provide raw materials, help maintain biodiversity, protect land and water resources, and help mitigate the effect of climate change on global marginal lands.

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Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria respond to multifactorial global change

Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria respond to multifactorial global change

Sidorenko Marina L.

Статья научная

In many recent studies, the effects of climate change on the future of biodiversity have been studied. As a result of human economic activity, extraction of mineral resources, land-use management, application of fertilizers (for example, nitrogen-containing compounds), carbon dioxide emissions into the Earth's atmosphere increase. This causes a change in the air temperature in the direction of increase and a change in the quantity and quality of the sediments, causing a wetting of the soils. The reaction of bacteria capable of oxidizing ammonia, belong to the group of chemo-litho-autotrophic microorganisms and at the same time are not associative microflora, was studied. In both natural and human-induced disturbance altered ecosystems, they strongly depend on these bacteria through intensive oxidation of ammonium. In response to artificially created climate changes, we received a change in the structure of the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community. The addition of a large amount of nitrogen fertilizer has led to a change in the number of bacteria that oxidize ammonia, while the temperature and humidity levels have changed, which also have an impact on AOB...

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An evaluation of risk adaptation practices by farmers in Malaysia

An evaluation of risk adaptation practices by farmers in Malaysia

Ali Muhammad, Man Norsida, Muharam Farrah Melissa

Статья научная

Climate change is not only affecting agricultural sector but also driving farmers to manage agricultural risks through various adaptation practices at global level. Farming community of Malaysia is also facing climate threats and taking different adaptation measures to manage the risks. Therefore, quantitative research was conducted in four zones of states in which 360 farmers were randomly selected. The findings showed that main adaptation measures mentioned by farmers were advance savings, diversification of income and agricultural sources and weather advisories. The study recommends that farm insurance as adaptation measure should be promoted by public and private sectors exclusively by agricultural extension personnel to minimize risk on account of climate changes in Malaysia.

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Building resilience and poverty alleviation through tilapia-based skills and livelihood development in Northern Mindanao

Building resilience and poverty alleviation through tilapia-based skills and livelihood development in Northern Mindanao

Roxas Proserpina G., Arriesgado Elgin M., Alia lee-marc С., Bagayna Floremie, Gomez Merriam danielle P., Gonzales Daniel M., Navarro Mark anthony J., Navarro Victor M., Moleo Eugene P., Perpetua Aida D., Sabilla Roseller G.

Статья научная

The project aimed to teach beneficiaries skills and assist them in establishing a tilapia-based livelihood, with the objective of building resilience and alleviate indigence amidst environmental challenges. A survey of organizations and site evaluation were conducted to determine qualified beneficiaries and suitability of area. Thirteen people’s organizations, one Local Government Unit and a school were qualified as partner-beneficiaries. They were trained the technologies on tilapia hatchery operations, tilanggit production and tilapia grow-out and were assisted in starting their own livelihoods, applying the acquired skills. Start-up materials were provided: fingerlings, cage materials, feeds and equipment. They were also given trainings on value-adding, feed formulation, entrepreneurship, bookkeeping, gender and development, and climate change. Government agencies were engaged for sustainability of the initiative. At the end of the project, seven organizations were already operating their hatcheries, producing fingerlings for their use and for market. The tilanggit processed by women were highly demanded in markets and festivals. Their grown-out tilapia is sold in retail and in bulk. As a strategy, the beneficiaries planted indigenous trees in river banks in exchange for free fingerlings. It was shown that bringing science to poor communities helps mitigate impacts of climate change.

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Carbon sequestration potentiality and its economic analysis of different land use systems in the northern part of Bangladesh

Carbon sequestration potentiality and its economic analysis of different land use systems in the northern part of Bangladesh

Bari Мd Shafiqul, Abubakar M.B., Rahman M.S.

Статья научная

This study was conducted to evaluate the carbon sequestration potentiality of different land use systems in the Northern part of Bangladesh. Common land use systems like cropland, roadside, homestead and orchard were used. Data were recorded from both tree growth parameters (height and diameter at breast height) and under storied vegetation (herbs, shrubs and crops) in order to estimate the total land use biomass accumulation. Complete measure of 40 m line transects in cropland, 40×5 m quadrant in roadside, 40×40 m quadrant in both orchard and homestead were used. At every sampling point, under stories biomass sample were taken from 1×1 m quadrant. The results showed that there was significant difference of carbon sequestration potentiality of different land use systems. For the main effect of different land use systems on carbon sequestration, there was significantly difference in respect of tree height (m), dbh (cm), carbon sequestration per tree (t ha-1) and total carbon sequestration by the land use systems (t ha-1)...

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Climate and children with bronchial asthma: a case study for the Russian Far East

Climate and children with bronchial asthma: a case study for the Russian Far East

Grigorieva Elena A., Suprun Evgeniy N.

Статья научная

Bronchial asthma (BA) continuously increases during the last century, and to date, has reached 15% of the world’s child population. Respiratory system and bronchial asthma morbidity are the first in the list of climate-sensitive diseases, and children compound a climate-high-risk group of the population. In recent years, there has been a steady growth of BA among children and teenagers of the Khabarovsk Krai, Russia; among teenagers, this number has doubled in the last ten years. The aim of the current study is to carry a comprehensive analysis covering climatic factors for bronchial asthma in children and teenagers, at the southern part of the Russian Far East (FE). The study area is located in monsoon climate of temperate latitudes characterized by extreme annual air temperature amplitude, with cold Siberian winter and tropically hot and sultry summer. Assessment of weather impact on children with BA in Khabarovsk, administrative center of the FE, for period 2013-2014 shows that the BA visits have a seasonal regime with peaks in spring (March - April) and in autumn - early winter (November - December), when day-to-day changes in temperature are large, and in summer (July) due to a large number of allergens (flowering plant-allergens), when various allergic diseases exacerbate...

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Coping with flashflood under changing climate in North-Eastern Haor areas of Bangladesh: potentials of promising crop production practices

Coping with flashflood under changing climate in North-Eastern Haor areas of Bangladesh: potentials of promising crop production practices

Abedin Anwarul, Habiba Umma

Статья научная

Haors are large bowl shaped floodplain depressions and one of the most important agro-ecological zones in Bangladesh. However, rice production in this area has been severely impacted by recent events of frequent early flashfloods. Many experts have linked the changes of flooding time and duration in haor area to global climate change. Farmers need short duration, relatively tall, lodging tolerance and non-shattering rice varieties to cope with the flashflood. With this contrast, this study is conducted in Tahirpur and Biswambarpur upazila of Sunamganj district to examine occurrence time and duration of flashflood; identify flashflood coping crop production practices; and finally investigate relationship between socio-economic characteristics of farmers and their flashflood coping crop production practices. Hence, this study utilizes a set of approaches viz. structured questionnaire survey, key informants interview with stakeholders and focus group discussions to get primary data and secondary data also collects to conceptualize the problems...

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Effects of long-term fertilization on strontium (Sr) and vanadium (V) in agricultural soils of Primorye in Russia under climate change

Effects of long-term fertilization on strontium (Sr) and vanadium (V) in agricultural soils of Primorye in Russia under climate change

Kosheleva Yuliya A., Timofeeva Yana O.

Статья научная

Strontium (Sr) and Vanadium (V) are potentially dangerous for the natural environment. Little is known about the accumulation and mobility thought soils profiles of different Sr and V forms. Several studies of Sr and V distribution in soils have demonstrated strongly fixation of elements by different soil properties. Climate change and, respectively, soils redox cycles changes can affect the main soil properties and of their associated elements. In current work, contents and the main factors controlling the vertical distribution and accumulation of total, “pseudo-total” and water soluble forms of Sr and V in the agricultural soils formed under long-term fertilizer application were studied. Total Sr and V contents increased to 10% and 2% respectively with adding fertilizer. The contents of “pseudo-total” Sr and V forms increased to 20%. The concentrations of water soluble Sr and V forms increased to 65%. The contents of Sr and V were manly controlled by soil acidity levels and organic C content in studied soils. Additionally, Sr was associated with Ca-, P-, Mn- containing compounds and V with Al-, Si-, Fe- containing compounds. Knowledge of the chemical behavior of the Sr and V in the agricultural soils creates a scientific basis for risk assessment and remediation strategies.

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Elderly mortality and climate at the Russian Far East

Elderly mortality and climate at the Russian Far East

Grigorieva Elena A., Sukhoveeva Anna B.

Статья научная

Medical and demographic statistics for elderly population is analysed for the regions at the Russian Far East, namely Primorsky and Khabarovsky Krai, Amur Region and the Jewish Autonomous Region (JAR), showing rapid growth of people at age cohort 65 years and older with double excess of women over men. On the contrary, “gender mortality dimorphism” at elderly ages is registered meaning all-cause mortality is 1.5-2.5 times higher for men than for women. More than 70% of all human losses for elderly population are caused by diseases of the circulatory system and neoplasms. Wet Kata Cooling Power by Hill, Net Effective Temperature and Wind Chill are bioclimatis indices chosen to illustrate the impact of climate on elderly mortality. The results show strong dependence of cardiovascular mortality on climate. Even keeping in mind that man-made social and economic environment plays great role in morbidity and mortality of elderly population, medical society must remember that critical exacerbation of chronic diseases can be triggered by discomfortable weather conditions. The results obtained can be used by health professionals in the development of strategies to mitigate the effect of weather in a changing climate, to promote, preserve and maintain public health.

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Environmental migration: essence, problems and possible solutions

Environmental migration: essence, problems and possible solutions

Orozonova Azyk

Статья научная

Climate change, desertification, high risks of water supplies and increasing droughts in irrigation networks of rivers and canals (Karakalpakia, Aral); ethnic and linguistic barriers between titular nation and small nations (Kazakhs, Karakalpaks) in Uzbekistan, which hampers their internal migration and threatens assimilation within the country - all these reasons are not a survival strategy, but contribute to escape in search of asylum to other territories (Russia, Kazakhstan). There is a need to address the problem of environmental migration, therefore, the concept of an “environmental migrant”, an “environmental refugee” should be introduced into practice. Why is environmental migration as a problem requiring detailed study? This is a complex process, which has the same characteristics with a general migration of the population, but which has its own characteristics. An analysis of this process shows that, despite the obvious relevance and significance, the problems associated with it remain unresolved...

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Ethics: ensuring food security in the era of climate change

Ethics: ensuring food security in the era of climate change

Shinwari Zabta K.

Статья научная

The present research covers topics such as global policy options for food security; and existing policy frameworks by the government of Pakistan and national bodies or organizations working for the cause of biosafety, biosecurity in the country. The ethical need to establish effective strategies related to country’s preparedness to tackle issues like climate change, poverty and food security is emphasized.

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Factor temporary forecast of socially significant morbidity in Primorsky krai

Factor temporary forecast of socially significant morbidity in Primorsky krai

Lozovskaya Svetlana A., Tsitsiashvili G.Sh., Stepanko Natalia G., Bolotin E.I., Izergina E.V., Pogorelov A.R.

Статья научная

At present, the problem of climate change and its impact on human health has become one of the central issues in the field of anthropoecology. The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of climatic factors on the socially significant pathology of the population in regions of Primorsky Krai. The main research method was “time factor forecasting”. The “factor” approach proposed by the authors is based on the idea of predicting not specific absolute indicators, but morbidity level that could be higher or equal to some critical value given by the researcher. This problem was solved by the original algorithm for interval pattern recognition. Based on this method, the results of temporary factor forecasting of the critical levels for 7 indicators of socially significant morbidity using four climatic, four socio-economic and one environmental factor, are presented. It is shown climatic factors basically are satisfactory and have a high quality for the forecast, while the socioeconomic and ecological factors are mostly unsatisfactory...

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Global warming, climate change and its threats to sustainable agriculture

Global warming, climate change and its threats to sustainable agriculture

Jan M. qasim, Muazim Khazima, Ashraf Arshad

Статья научная

Global warming, climate change and environmental degradation constitute the biggest threat to human civilization. Temperature measurement records on land and sea, shrinking polar ice sheets, recession in mountain glaciers, rise in sea level and ocean acidification are manifestation of global temperature increase, estimated at 0.8-1.0°C since 1880. The present day global warming is generally considered a consequence of the accumulation in atmosphere of greenhouse gases, notably CO2, which result from burning of hydrocarbons in industry, power generation, vehicles and domestic use. Global warming would result in melting of glaciers and polar icecaps, unpredictable weather patterns, natural disasters (e.g., floods), disruption of existing communication systems and infrastructure, health issues, sea level rise and unmanageable threat to coastal regions. It can trigger the vicious circle of food insecurity, human migration and conflicts. Climate change can cause unpredictable changes in weather patterns, erosion of soil, desertification of cultivable land, disruption of existing irrigation systems, and reduction of tropical forest cover...

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Grassfire forecast at agricultural lands of the Jewish autonomous region

Grassfire forecast at agricultural lands of the Jewish autonomous region

Glagolev Vladimir A., Zubareva Anna M., Grigorieva Elena A.

Статья научная

The method proposed for prediction of the grass fire ignition and development during spring-autumn fire period is based on the author’s probability model for prediction of wild fire ignition depending on natural and man-made conditions, and the Australian McArthur model for forecast of non-forest fire development. This method has been verified on fire data of 2015-2017 in the Jewish Autonomous Region. Calculations were done with the help of electronic maps of forest area quarters and the network of operational-territorial units (OTU) of the agricultural lands designed at 2.5 x 2.5 km cells. The Earth’s remote sensing data on non-forest fires in 2010-2014 and information on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during periods before and after growing season (April 23 - May 13, and September 24 - October 10) are used. The highest probability of the fire effect on agricultural land is found at a distance of 3 km from the roads and 3-6 km from the urban areas. The spatial coincidence of OTU with real and predicted grassfires and the validity of the forecast in spring before growing season are considered to be satisfactory. The suggested method of predicting grassfire ignition and development has a considerable practical importance and can be applied in the development of fire-incident management strategies and measures to mitigate a threat to human and environmental health.

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Human parasites in the Amur river: the results of 2017-2018 field studies

Human parasites in the Amur river: the results of 2017-2018 field studies

Tatonova Yulia V., Solodovnik Daria A., Nguyen Hung Manh

Статья научная

Foodborne diseases are an important health problem worldwide. In the Far East of Russia, the greatest epidemiological significance is found for representatives of four trematode genera, including Clonorchis and Metagonimus. In 2017, it was discovered that a new species of Metagonimus suifunensis, previously described as M. yokogawai, was distributed in the Primorsky Krai and the Khabarovsky Krai. In 2017-2018 the infection of the first and second intermediate hosts by Clonorchis sinensis и Metagonimus spp. was assessed in the Amur River basin. New results for these parasites from the Khabarovsky Krai, comparison with data for the Primorsky Krai and discussion in connection with the human activity in the Far East region are reported in current research. A possible location with the presence of a disruptive selection for Metagonimus spp. was found in Khabarovsky Krai. In addition to Clonorchis sinensis and Metagonimus spp., new information on the distribution was obtained for another trematode species in Khabarovsky Krai.

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Impacts of natural disasters on farms and farmers in Malaysia

Impacts of natural disasters on farms and farmers in Malaysia

Ali Muhammad, Man Norsida, Muharam Farrah Melissa

Статья научная

Natural disasters particularly floods and land sliding in Malaysia are frequently caused by climate changes. The impacts are also faced by farms and farmers in the form of production loss, farm infrastructure and even on psychology of farmers. Consequently, agricultural sector is becoming more risky which would affect food security of the country. Current research was carried out to assess the level of impacts of natural disasters on farms and farmers in the last five years. The impact level was measured on the scale of low, medium and high. The respondents were 360 farmers who were selected through one of the probability sampling techniques. The results revealed that climate changes in the form of natural disasters highly destroyed farm production, crashed irrigation and drainage facilities, and negetively affected emotions and psychology of farmers. The study recommends that various agricultural players such as public and private organizations, researchers, academia, students and policy makers are required to ponder profoundly on the impacts level and formulate strategies to facilitate farmers and their farms.

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Increasing temperature extremes and thermal discomfort over Southern India: concerns for human health

Increasing temperature extremes and thermal discomfort over Southern India: concerns for human health

Dhorde Amit G.

Статья научная

The paper analyses trends in temperature extremes such as hot days, very hot days and extremely hot days over southern India during summer season for the period 1969 to 2015. Tendencies in human thermal discomfort have also been worked out for the same time period. Linear regression and Mann-Kendall test were applied for time series analysis. Human thermal discomfort was investigated using Heat Index (HI) and Wet Bulb Globe temperature (WBGT) indices. It was observed that hot days and very hot days have increased during the study period over southern half of the study area. The rate of change is higher and significant over west coast. Consequently an increase in discomfort was observed over west coast during all summer months, which are March, April and May. During April and May even the east coast stations revealed significant upward trend in discomfort. Even some inland stations have registered rising tendencies in discomfort. It reveals that the heat stress is rising in the southern India, which is a major health concern for the population living in this area. There is a need to develop a warning system of heat stress, which will help in preventing casualties due to heat stress.

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International instruments in the field of climate change

International instruments in the field of climate change

Karybekova Gulzar

Статья научная

One of the important international treaties in the field of climate change is the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Main objective of the UNFCCC is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. At present 165 countries joined to UNFCCC and get good experience in climate change issue and singed a lot of agreements as a Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement, Bali Action Plan, etc. The parties to the convention have met annually from 1995 in Conferences of the Parties (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was concluded and established legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2008-2012. The 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference produced an agreement stating that future global warming should be limited to below 2.0°C (3.6°F) relative to the pre-industrial level. The Protocol was amended in 2012 to encompass the period 2013-2020 in the Doha Amendment, which as of December 2015 had not entered into force. In 2015 the Paris Agreement was adopted, governing emission reductions from 2020 on through commitments of countries in ambitious Nationally Determined Contributions. The Paris Agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016. The aim of the current work is to give a brief review of agreements signed by the UNFCCC.

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Iran's commitments toward meeting the goals of Paris agreement: harnessing the global temperature rise

Iran's commitments toward meeting the goals of Paris agreement: harnessing the global temperature rise

Sobouti Yousef

Статья научная

Since its inception in Rio, 1992, United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC) has held 23 Conference of Parties (COP). COP21 of Paris, December 2015, by consensus, is a breakthrough in more than 25 years of debates and disputes over climate change and global warming issues. COP21 invites the world players to reduce the Global Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, to limit Planet’s temperature rise to below 2 degrees Celsius, if not below 1.5, by the end of the 21st century. To meet the challenge, the main recommendations of the agreement are as follows: COP21 invites its member to propose an intended Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), towards meeting its goals, proportionate to their administrative, economic, and technological capabilities. NDCs are required to be Measurable, Reportable, and Verifiable (MRV). NDCs should be revised every 5 years on the basis of knowledge and experience gained in the process. COP21 urges the developed countries to assist the developing ones, technology-, finance-, and knowhow- wise to develop and execute their NDCs...

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