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24-epibrassinolide ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress (NaCl) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

24-epibrassinolide ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress (NaCl) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

Ibn Maaouia-Houimli Samira, Dridi-Mouhandes Bouthaina, Ben Mansour-Gueddes Samia, Denden Mounir

Статья научная

The present study investigates the role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) in inducing plant tolerance to salinity. Seedlings of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) were grown in the presence of 70 mM NaCl and were sprayed with 10-6 M EBL at 7 days after transplantation and were sampled at 28 day. The plants exposed to NaCl exhibited a significant decline in relative growth rate, net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency. However, the follow up treatment with EBL significantly improved the above parameters. EBL treated plants had greater relative growth rate compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of EBL increased photosynthesis by increasing stomatal conductance in both control and salt stressed plants and may have contributed to the enhanced growth. The water use efficiency was improved because CO2 assimilation is more important than the transpiration.

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24-epibrassinolide enhances flower and fruit production of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under salt stress

24-epibrassinolide enhances flower and fruit production of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under salt stress

Ibn Maaouia-Houimli Samira, Ben Mansour-Gueddes Samia, Dridi-Mouhandes Bouthaina, Denden Mounir

Статья научная

Among various environmental stresses, salt stress is extensively damaging to crops production in many areas of the world. The enhancement of plant tolerance is important for plant productivity. Brassinosteroids plays an important role in the plant response to adverse environmental conditions such as salt stress. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to explore the role of exogenously applied 24-epibrassinolide on flower and fruit production of pepper in presence or absence of NaCl-stress (70 mM). The plants were sprayed with 10-6M of 24-epibrassinolide at vegetative, buds formation and early fruiting. 24-epibrassinolide improves flower number, fruit number and yield per plant, but was without effect on fruit mass and size. The detailed measurement of these parameters indicates that the effects of 24-epibrassinolide depend on the development stage of pepper plant and the application frequency of this hormone.

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24-epibrassinolide mediated changes in photosynthetic pigments and antioxidative defence system of radish seedlings under cadmium and mercury stress

24-epibrassinolide mediated changes in photosynthetic pigments and antioxidative defence system of radish seedlings under cadmium and mercury stress

Kapoor Dhriti, Rattan Amandeep, Gautam Vandana, Kapoor Nitika, Bhardwaj Renu

Статья научная

The present work was conducted to study the effects of 24-EBL on photosynthetic pigments (total chlorophyll, chl a, chl b, carotenoid, anthocyanin and flavonoid content) and activities of antioxidative enzymes (guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, mono-dehydroascorbate reductase, polyphenol oxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S- transferase and protein content) in 7-day old seedlings of Raphanus sativus exposed to cadmium and mercury toxicity. Findings of present study were revealed that brassinolide was proved beneficial for amelioration of Cd and Hg stress by altering various metabolic processes of plant.

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28-homobrassinolide modulate antenna complexes and carbon skeleton of Brassica juncea L. under temperature stress

28-homobrassinolide modulate antenna complexes and carbon skeleton of Brassica juncea L. under temperature stress

Kaur Harpreet, Sirhindi Geetika, Bhardwaj Renu, Sharma Poonam, Mudasir Mir

Статья научная

The aim of present study was to explore the ameliorative impact of 28-homoBL on morpho-physiological attributes, photosynthetic pigments and sugars of Brassica juncea L. exposed to oxidative stress caused by extreme temperatures (4 and 44 °C). For this, experiments were carried out at the Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala. Effect of different degrees of temperature (4 and 44 °C) taking 24 °C as control was studied. 28-homoBL (10 -6, 10 -9 and 10 -12M) primed and unprimed seeds of B. Juncea L. in terms of antenna complexes and end products of photosynthesis that is total carbohydrates and total soluble sugars was investigated. All concentrations of 28-homoBL used in present study showed different effects on morphology and light quenching pigments. All concentrations of 28-homoBL showed promoting effect on growth and light quenching pigments. The carbon makeup ameliorated positively in stressed and non-stressed components of photosynthetic machinery and 10 -9 M 28-homoBL showed best results. In conclusion 28-homoBL showed great potential in protecting the reaction centre of photosynthetic machinery from oxidative stress caused by extreme low and high temperatures but in very dose dependent manner and thus modulate the carbon skeleton of the plant.

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28-homobrassinolide protects photosynthetic machinery in Indian mustard under high temperature stress

28-homobrassinolide protects photosynthetic machinery in Indian mustard under high temperature stress

Fariduddin Qazi, Yusuf Mohammad, Begum Mahmooda, Ahmad Aqil

Статья научная

High temperature is a serious threat to crop production. Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of plant steroidal hormones, can reduce effects of abiotic stresses. The present study was aimed to study the potency of brassinosteroids on high temperature induced changes in Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.) for effects on growth, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, photosystem II, antioxidant system and proline. Surface sterilized seeds of Indian mustard were sown in pots, grown for 21 days and treated with double distilled water or 0.01 µM of 28-homobrassinolide. Treated plants, after 24 h, were exposed to 30°C or 40°C for 48 h. One set of plants were kept at ambient temperature, 25°C, as the control. Plants were harvested at 30 days stage of growth to assess the various parameters. Plants exposed to 40°C had a decline in growth, leaf water potential, chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate, and activities of carbonic anhydrase (E.C.4.2.1.1) and nitrate reductase (E.C.1.6.1.1). The 28-homobrassinolide alone improved growth and photosynthesis responses along with various enzymes activities. Treatment of plants with HBL prior to exposure to 40°C, partially reduced damage and completely controlled damage when exposure was to 30°C. Levels of the antioxidative enzymes catalase (E.C.1.11.1.6), peroxidase (E.C.1.11.1.7), and superoxide dismutase (E.C.1.15.1.1), and the level of proline increased in response to 30 or 40°C and were further enhanced in the presence of 28-homobrassinolide. Plants grown under high temperature had increased levels of H 2O 2; application of HBL before temperature treatment decreased H 2O 2 content compared to the control. Elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes and proline might be responsible for conferring tolerance to high temperature stress in Indian mustard and overcome the loss of productivity of the crop.

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A comparative study of lichen biochemistry and air pollution status of urban, semi urban and industrial area of Hooghly and Burdwan district, West Bengal

A comparative study of lichen biochemistry and air pollution status of urban, semi urban and industrial area of Hooghly and Burdwan district, West Bengal

Das K., Dey U., Bhaumik R., Datta J.K., Mondal N.K.

Статья научная

Lichens are group of nonvascular plants. Lichen absorbs water and nutrient passively from their environment. Because of this lichens are particularly sensitive to environmental factors such as temperature, water availability, and air pollutants and/or by substances accumulates in lichen from the environment through variety of mechanisms including particulate trapping, ion exchange, extracellular electrolyte adsorption, hydrolysis and intra cellular uptake. Air pollution control is more complex than most other environmental changes. A study has been done to evaluate the air pollution status by means of lichen through the biochemical variability of three macro environment (semiurban area Arambagh, urban area Burdwan and industrial area Durgapur). The study results revealed that there exist inverse relationship between pollutant load and pigment content (chlorophyll and carotenoid content). Average concentration of chlorophyll 'a', 'b', and total chlorophyll was found in following order, Site-II>Site-III>Site-I. From the result of Chlorophyll Stability Index (CSI) it has been found that the chlorophyll degradation is highest in Site-II followed by Site-III and lowest in Site-I. There is a strong inverse relationship of chlorophyll content in lichen with SO2and NOxbut the level of SPM found highest in Site-I followed by Site-III and lowest in Site-II. Moreover, biochemical constituents (protein, sugar, phenol and proline) of all the representative samples were also vary from site to site. The study results reveal that the amount of soluble sugar was highest recorded at Site-III followed by Site-I and lowest in Site-II. Again correlation study indicates that there is positive relationship between soluble sugar and phenol content at 5% level of significance. Therefore, it also indicates that the lichen metabolite and other physiological action monitored by SO2, NOx SPM level in the air. Studies showed that the semiurban area was under more vulnerable condition than industrial and urban area of Hooghly and Burdwan district. Moreover the micrograph study of representative lichen samples directly proved that lichen structure affected by air pollutants, but the extent of deformation exclusively depends on the level of pollutants present in the air. Results also suggest that different level of air pollutants (SO2, NOxand SPM) affect the biochemical parameters of lichen, but more extensive study is needed to confirm the relationship between air pollution status and lichen biochemistry.

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A study on serum electrolyte pattern during ambient stress in Murrah buffalo of arid tracts in India

A study on serum electrolyte pattern during ambient stress in Murrah buffalo of arid tracts in India

Joshi A., Kataria N., Kataria A.K., Pandey N., Khan S.

Статья научная

A study was undertaken to assess the effect of ambient stress on serum electrolyte pattern of Murrah buffaloes of arid tracts in India. Healthy adult female Murrah buffaloes were grouped according to physiological states and screened during moderate, hot and cold ambiences. The mean values (m mol L-1) of serum inorganic phosphorus, calcium and magnesium during moderate ambience were 1.80± 0.01, 2.80± 0.01 and 0.90± 0.002, respectively. During hot and cold ambiences significant (p≤0.05) decrease was observed in the mean value of each electrolyte. Decline was higher during hot ambience as compared to cold ambience. In each ambience it was noticed that serum electrolyte concentration of pregnant dry animals was lowest significantly (p≤0.05) as compared to non pregnant milch followed by pregnant milch. Multipara animals showed significantly (p≤0.05) lower value of each electrolyte as compared to primipara. It was concluded that ambient stress during hot and cold ambiences resulted in depletion of electrolyte levels of the buffaloes of all physiological states.

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ABA biosynthesis defective mutants reduce some free amino acids accumulation under drought stress in tomato leaves in comparison with arabidopsis plants tissues

ABA biosynthesis defective mutants reduce some free amino acids accumulation under drought stress in tomato leaves in comparison with arabidopsis plants tissues

AL.asbahi Adnan ali, AL.maqtari Maher ali, Naji Khalid Mohammed

Статья научная

The ability of plants to tolerate drought conditions is crucial for plant survival and crop production worldwide. The present data confirm previous findings reported existence of a strong relation between abscisic acid (ABA) content and amino acid accumulation as response water stress which is one of the most important defense mechanism activated during water stress in many plant species. Therefore, free amino acids were measured to determine any changes in the metabolite pool in relation to ABA content. The ABA defective mutants of Arabidopsis plants were subjected to leaf dehydration for Arabidopsis on Whatman 3 mm filter paper at room temperature while, tomato mutant plants were subjected to drought stresses for tomato plants by withholding water. To understand the signal transduction mechanisms underlying osmotic stress-regulating gene induction and activation of osmoprotectant free amino acid synthesizing genes, we carried out a genetic screen to isolate Arabidopsis mutants defective in ABA biosynthesis under drought stress conditions. The present results revealed an accumulation of specific free amino acid in water stressed tissues in which majority of free amino acids are increased especially those playing an osmoprotectant role such as proline and glycine. Drought stress related Amino acids contents are significantly reduced in the mutants under water stress condition while they are increased significantly in the wild types plants. The exhibited higher accumulation of other amino acids under stressed condition in the mutant plants suggest that, their expressions are regulated in an ABA independent pathways. In addition, free amino acids content changes during water stress condition suggest their contribution in drought toleration as common compatible osmolytes.

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Absorption of power plants СО 2 emissions by coniferous tree stands

Absorption of power plants СО 2 emissions by coniferous tree stands

Suvorova G.G.

Статья научная

The article reviews the ability of coniferous (common pine, siberian larch and siberian spruce) stands growing in 9 municipal districts of the Irkutsk region to absorb СО 2 technogenic emission of heat power plants. (EIGAF) index is suggested to characterize gas-absorbing (СО 2-absorbing) activity; the index reflects proportion between СО 2 technogenic emission and photosynthetic productivity (GPP) of coniferous tree stands. СО 2-absorbing capacity in 8 of the monitored districts has been shown to significantly exceed the amount of carbon dioxide emission from heat power sector. The index values EIGAF=0.01-0.97 demonstrate that СО 2 technogenic emission amounts to 1-97% of coniferous stands photosynthetic productivity in the areas under study. At the same time, the most industrially developed Angarsk district shows СО 2 photosynthetic absorption to be 8-12 times lower than technogenic СО 2 emission. Reasons of low gas-absorbing capacity of coniferous tree stands of this area are discussed.

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Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids

Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids

Yavari Abbas

Статья научная

According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS) is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports and widespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem. Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance. Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

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Accumulation pattern of heavy metals in Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robins. grown in nutrient solution and soil

Accumulation pattern of heavy metals in Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robins. grown in nutrient solution and soil

Swapna K.S., Shackira A.M., Abdussalam A.K., Nabeesa-Salim , Jos T. puthur

Статья научная

Accumulation pattern of Al, Cd, Fe, Hg, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in Chromolaena odorata plants grown in Hoagland nutrient solution and soil contaminated with known quantities of the above said metals was investigated. Significant variations in the quantity of accumulation as well as distribution among plant parts like root, stem and leaf were shown between the metals. Accumulation of Pb was maximum in the root followed by Fe and Al. Maximum quantity of each metal was accumulated in the root as compared to stem and leaf. Drastic differences in the accumulation pattern of metals between the nutrient solution and soil culture was observed. Comparatively small quantity of metal was accumulated in the plants of soil despite several fold quantity of each metal was given. The results are discussed in terms of BCF, TF, metal specificity as well as detoxification mechanisms.

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Activation of cell death in the sugar cane suspension culture by the exposure to high temperature

Activation of cell death in the sugar cane suspension culture by the exposure to high temperature

Lyubushkina I.V., Fedyaeva A.V., Pobezhimova T.P., Stepanov A.V., Rikhvanov E.G.

Статья научная

The process of cell death in a sugar cane suspension culture after exposure to high temperature (45, 50, 55 and 60 °C) during 10 min has been studied. It has been revealed that treatment of cell culture at 50 °C did not cause an immediate cell death, but 50% of the cells were dying for the next 48 h. Exposure of cell culture to more high temperature (55 - 60 °C) caused a massive cell death occurred instantly after treatment. The development of cell death after the treatment at 50 °C was accompanied by the protoplast condensation, increased generation of reactive oxygen species and hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Obtained results indicate on the active character of the cell death process, induced by the moderate heat shock in sugar cane suspension culture.

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Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Fld and Gus genes into canola for salinity stress

Agrobacterium mediated transformation of Fld and Gus genes into canola for salinity stress

Niapour Nazila, Baghizadeh Amin, Tohidfar Masoud, Pourseyedi Shahram

Статья научная

Salinity is one of the major abiotic stress which limits wide spread canola cultivation. One way to overcome this problem could be transfection, to produce tolerable species. Cotyledonary and hypocotyls explants obtained from 4 and 7 days old seedling of Elite and RJS003 varieties were utilized in this study. Genetic transformation was implemented through Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 containing PBI121 plasmid and Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, LBA4404, AGL0 and EHA 101 strains which contain P6u- ubi- fvt1 construct. The T-DNA region of P6u- Ubi- Fvt1 plasmid included HPT (Hygromycin phosphotransferase) plant selectable marker and Fld (flavodoxin) gene. PBI121 plasmid had NptII (Neomycin phosphotransferase) plant Selectable marker and β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter genes. Transfected explants were analyzed by PCR and histochemical assay for Fld and Gus genes, respectively. Our data indicated that the cotyledonary explants of both cultivars were incompetent to be infected with Fld gens. However, the transformation in Elite hypocotyls explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 and LBA 4404 strains were confirmed through PCR product and histochemical evaluation for Fld and GUS genes, respectively. Therefore, the result of this manuscript may to certain degree fulfill the endeavor appointed to this oilseed.

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Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of sorghum using tissue culture-based and pollen-mediated approaches

Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of sorghum using tissue culture-based and pollen-mediated approaches

Elkonin L.A., Nosova O.N., Italianskaya J.V., Итальянская Ю.В.

Статья

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Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Nicotiana tabacum by disarmed strain at 699 resulted in considerable raising of growth and development of transgenic plants

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Nicotiana tabacum by disarmed strain at 699 resulted in considerable raising of growth and development of transgenic plants

Maximova L.A., Nurminskaya J.V., Kopytina T.V., Enikeev A.G.

Статья научная

The question how long transgenesis invected alterations are demonstrated in a succeeding generations remains of great interest. In this study we describe the development of T1-T5 generations of Nicotiana tabacum L. transformed by Agrobacterium tumefacience strain 699 with disarmed plasmid. Tobacco plants were grown in the same environmental conditions. The characteristics of vegetative and generated parts had been assessed. Transgenic plants were superior to normal ones in leaf area and stem length, had earlier flowering and internodes development but not differ in a number and size of flowers. Growth activation is suggested to be a result of biotic stress induced by transformation

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Allelopathic effect of Solanum melongena L. on Vigna radiata L

Allelopathic effect of Solanum melongena L. on Vigna radiata L

Singh Deepti, Singh Narsingh Bahadur, Yadav Kavita, Kumar Sanjay, Lal Bihari

Статья научная

The present study has been carried out to investigate the allelopathic effect of aqueous leaf leachate of Solanum melongena L. on Vigna radiata L. The effects of leachate on germination, radicle length, plumule length, protein content and cell division in root tip meristems of seedlings of Vigna were studied. The seeds of mungbean were soaked with leaf leachate of 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% concentrations for 4h. Bioassay indicated that there was dose-dependent inhibition of germination and seedling growth. Protein content was found to be reduced by the leachate of different concentrations as compared with control. The study also revealed that antioxidative enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities increased with the increase in concentration of aqueous leaf leachate. Mitotic activity in root-tip cells of mungbean was found to be reduced and the impact was dose-dependent. However, chromosomal abnormalities, viz. fragment, precocious separation, sticky chromosome, disturbed metaphase and bridge were found to be increased with increasing concentrations of leachate.

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Allelopathic stress produced by bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia L.)

Allelopathic stress produced by bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia L.)

Singh N.B., Sunaina

Статья научная

The present study deals with in vitro effects of allelochemicals present in leaf and fruit leachate of Momordica charantia in vitro on plant growth and metabolism of Lycopersicon esculentum. Momordica was selected as a donor plant and tomato as recipient. Seeds of tomato were shown in pots and after germination different concentrations viz. 25, 50, 75 and 100% of leaf and fruit leachates were applied as treatment. Twenty days old seedlings were harvested for biophysical and biochemical analyses. The root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of the seedlings decreased in dose dependent manner. The reduction in pigment and protein contents and nitrate reductase activity was concentration dependent. Membrane leakage increased as the concentration of leachates increased. Activities of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) activities significantly enhanced under allelopathic stress. Inhibition of various metabolic activities under allelopathic stress resulted in decreased plant growth and development. The fruit leachate of Momordica was more inhibitory than leaf leachate.

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Alleviation of boron stress through plant derived smoke extracts in sorghum bicolor

Alleviation of boron stress through plant derived smoke extracts in sorghum bicolor

Khan Pirzada, Ur Rehman Shafiq, Jamil Muhammad, Irfan Shahid, Waheed M.A., Aslam Muhammad Mudassar, Kanwal Memoona, Shakir Shakirullah Khan

Статья научная

Boron is an essential micronutrient necessary for plant growth at optimum concentration. However, at high concentrations boron affects plant growth and is toxic to cells. Aqueous extract of plant-derived smoke has been used as a growth regulator for the last two decades to improve seed germination and seedling vigor. It has been established that plant-derived smoke possesses some compounds that act like plant growth hormones. The present research was the first comprehensive attempt to investigate the alleviation of boron stress with plant-derived smoke aqueous extract on Sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) seed. Smoke extracts of five plants, i.e. Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Peganum harmala, Datura alba and Melia azedarach each with six dilutions (Concentrated, 1:100, 1:200, 1:300, 1:400 and 1:500) were used. While boron solutions at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ppm were used for stress. Among the dilutions of smoke, 1:500 of E. camaldulensis significantly increased germination percentage, root and shoot length, number of secondary roots and fresh weight of root and shoot while, boron stress reduced growth of Sorghum. It was observed that combined effect of boron solution and E. camaldulensis smoke extract overcome inhibition and significantly improved plant growth. Present research work investigated that the smoke solution has the potential to alleviate boron toxicity by reducing the uptake of boron by maintaining integrity of plant cell wall. The present investigation suggested that plant derived smoke has the potential to alleviate boron stress and can be used to overcome yield losses caused by boron stress to plants.

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Alleviation of seawater stress on tomato by foliar application of aspartic acid and glutathione

Alleviation of seawater stress on tomato by foliar application of aspartic acid and glutathione

Akladious Samia Ageeb, Abbas Salwa Mohamed

Статья научная

A pot experiment was carried out in the botanical garden of Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, with the aim of studying the effect of salinity levels (4, 8 and 16% of diluted seawater) and foliar application of aspartic acid and/or glutathione on the growth and chemical constituents of tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum Mill) plants. The most important results can be summarized as: 1). Treatments of high salinity levels reduced all growth parameters and chemical constituents of plants. 2) Both aspartic acid and glutathione significantly increased plant growth, the contents of anthocyanin, α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and enzymatic activities. In addition, the content of endogenous amino acids was increased which in turn led to positive changes in the picture of protein electrophoresis, theses changes were accompanied by appearance and disappearance of some protein bands and caused obvious changes in the anatomical features of the stems. 3) The effect of aspartic acid was superior to that of glutathione on increasing plant growth and chemical constituents. 4) Under low saline conditions, the maximum plant growth for all the recorded growth parameters was obtained from plants treated with aspartic acid and grown under 8% of seawater, followed by 4%. However, glutathione had inhibitor effect on plant growth and chemical constituents of plants grown at 16% seawater. The data revealed that the different antioxidants could partially alleviate the harmful effects of salinity stress that reflected on growth and some physiological changes of tomato plant.

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